Composition – Main Subject in the Right Third not the Left

File:Jan Vermeer van Delft 011.jpg

Although several names are applied to the principle, there is a long-standing understanding that visual art [including photography and design] is more effective when the main subject is not in the center–rather that it be placed in one third or the other of the frame.  Is one side of the frame preferred over the other?  The answer to that question seems to be yes–at least for us Westerners who read from left to right.  We also seem to prefer to view our images from left to right.  We have a tendency to enter from the left; to travel across the median; and to rest in the right third of the canvas.  The Golden Section- as it relates to this tendency.

File:Golden section construction 3.png

File:Cornu Spiral.svgFile:Golden section construction.png

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Composition – Rebatment of the Rectangle – Rules for Visual Artists, Designers, & Photographers,

Animation of Rebatment from Wikipedia
Animation of Rebatment from Wikipedia
Rebatment Animation from Wikipedia
Rebatment Animation from Wikipedia

From Wikipedia:

“Every rectangle contains two implied squares, each consisting of a short side of the rectangle, an equal length along each longer side, and an imaginary fourth line parallel to the short side. The process of mentally rotating the short sides onto the long ones is called “rabatment”, and often the imaginary fourth line is called “the rabatment”.

Also known as rebatement and rabattementrabatment means the rotation of a plane into another plane about their line of intersection, as in closing an open hinge.[1] In two dimensions, it means to rotate a line about a point until the line coincides with another sharing the same point. The term is used in geometry, art and architecture.[2] …

 

Image

Renaissance artists used rabatment as a foundation to art and architectural works,[4][5] but the rabatment can be observed in art taken from almost any period.[6]

As one of many composition techniques, rabatment of the rectangle can be used to inform the positioning of elements within the rectangle. There is no hard and fast rule regarding such positioning; a composition can have a sense of dynamic unrest or a sense of equilibrium relative to important lines such as ones taken from rabatment or from the rule of thirds, or from nodal points such as the “eyes of a rectangle”—the four intersections derived from the rule of thirds.[7] Primary image elements can be positioned within one of the two rabatment squares to define the center of interest, and secondary image elements can be placed outside of a rabatment square.[8]

The concept of rabatment can be applied to rectangles of any proportion.[9] For rectangles with a 3:2 ratio (as in 35mm film in still photography), it happens that the rabatment lines are exactly matched to the rule of thirds lines.[10]

In a horizontally-aligned rectangle, there is one implied square for the left side and one for the right; for a vertically-aligned rectangle, there are upper and lower squares.[3] If the long sides of the rectangle are exactly twice the length of the short, this line is right in the middle. With longer-proportioned rectangles, the squares don’t overlap, but with shorter-proportioned ones, they do. In Western cultures that read left to right, attention is often focused inside the left-hand rabatment, or on the line it forms at the right-hand side of the image.[11]

When rabatment is used with one side of a golden rectangle, and then iteratively applied to the left-over rectangle, the resulting “whirling rectangles” describe the golden spiral.[12]

File:Fort Ross, CA rabatment study.jpg

.Gimpressionist 22 fishing0070a 3 nevit rabatment study.jpg

Claude Monet‘s painting of a poppyfield includes one tall tree at the rightmost border of the left-hand rabatment square.

Monet - Mohnblumenfeld rabatment study.jpg

Rembrandt‘s self-portrait places the lit part of his studio within the left-hand rabatment square. The artist himself stands at the border of the other square facing inward.

Rembrandt The Artist in his studio rabatment study.jpg

Gustave Caillebotte‘s painting shows the boat outside the right-hand rabatment square and the man at the rightmost border of the left-hand square, leaning and reaching across the empty central expanse. Both the upper and the lower river banks intersect the rabatment lines at the painting’s border.

Gustave Caillebotte Boater Pulling on His Perissoire rabatment study.jpg

References[edit source | editbeta]

  1. ^ Oxford English Dictionary (2 ed.). Oxford University Press. 2003.
  2. ^ Paynter, J.E. (1921). Practical geometry for builders and architects. London: Chapman & Hall.
  3. a b c Mize, Dianne (27 January 2009). “How to Use Rabatment in Your Compositions”Empty Easel. Retrieved 26 February 2011.
  4. ^ Sriraman, Bharath; Freiman, Viktor; Lirette-Pitre, Nicole (2009). Interdisciplinarity, creativity, and learning: mathematics with literature, paradoxes, history, technology, and modeling. IAP. p. 122. ISBN 1-60752-101-6.
  5. ^ Fett, Birch (2006). “An In-depth Investigation of the Divine Ratio”The Montana Mathematics Enthusiast (The Montana Council of Teachers of Mathematics) 3 (2): 157–175.ISSN 1551-3440.
  6. ^ Bouleau, Charles (1963). The painter’s secret geometry: a study of composition in art. New York: Harcourt, Brace. pp. 43–46.
  7. ^ Feltus, Alan. “Painting and Composition”. Umbria, Italy: International School of Painting, Drawing, and Sculpture. Retrieved 26 February 2011.
  8. ^ Mize, Dianne (16 July 2008). “Placing Our Images: Rabatment”Compose. Retrieved 27 February 2011.
  9. ^ Dunstan, Bernard (1979). Composing your paintings. Start To Paint. Taplinger Publishing. pp. 22, 26. ISBN 0-8008-1803-2.
  10. ^ Brown, Scott (2009). “Glossary”. Watercolorists of Whatcom. Retrieved 27 February 2011.
  11. ^ Nelson, Connie (2010). “Composition in art: Rabatment”. Explore-Drawing-and-Painting.com. Retrieved 1 March 2011.
  12. ^ Fairbanks, Avard T.; Fairbanks, Eugene F. (2005). Human Proportions for Artists. Fairbanks Art and Books. p. 210ISBN 0-9725841-1-0.

Composition – Rule of Thirds for Landscapes, Portraits, and All Visual Art

File:1629 Claesz Stilleben anagoria.JPG

Many do not realize it but where an image rests on a canvas is as important as how the image actually looks.  The act of placing an image correctly is the act of composing.  Good image placement is good composition.

Learning how to achieve good composition is essential any type of visual art–drawing, painting, photography, printmaking, design, etc.

Years ago, I discovered that when I step a few feet away from my work and when I squint my eyes, I can actually feel–can actually sense where and how I need to make changes.

First and foremost, the artist, designer, and/or photographer want their viewer’s eye to move completely throughout the canvas area.  The Rule of Thirds is a type of  “trick” in composition that both guides the viewer’s eye and provides desirable resting places for the canvas’s important data.  The following animation divides a canvas into the appropriate thirds; and it also shows how the viewer’s eye should be directed:

Rule of Thirds Animation
The Rule of Thirds Animation from Wikipedia
Rules of Composition & Eye Movement & Rule of Thirds Animation from Wikiped
Rules of Composition, Eye Movement & Rule of Thirds Animation from Wikipedia

“The ‘rule’ was developed in the mid-19th century, primarily as a guide for landscape artists, but was quickly adopted by photographers who spotted its value, first in landscape photography, then in other genres.

“Grid – When employing the rule of thirds the photographer mentally imposes a grid over a potential scene.  The grid is comprised of two vertical and two horizontal lines that divide the scene into thirds, both vertically and horizontally, or into nine squares…. The rule works on the basis that any continuous horizontal line running the width of the image, such as the horizon or a row of distant trees, has greater dynamism and interest if placed on one of the horizontal grid lines than if it were placed in the centre of the image.  Similarly, any strong vertical objects in the scene would be best placed on one of the two vertical lines.

Cape_Shabla_Lighthouse_3

Third Rule

Points of Interest – In addition to using horizontal and vertical lines as guides, it is also important to consider the four points at which the dividing lines cross–these are known as the points of interest or the points of power.  When composing a shot, try to ensure that principal elements in the scene are placed one one of more of these points of interest.  Doing so will ensure that focal points in your image are kept away from the centre of the picture and add interest to the image.  You don’t have to slavishly ensure that key points sit directly over points of interest–they are intended as guidelines only.

800px-Rule_of_thirds

Portraits – Although the rule of thirds was devised primarily for landscape artists and photographers, it can also be used with other forms of photography.  In portrait photography, for example, it is best to avoid having the subject’s eyes run through the  centre of the photograph if shooting a close-up of someone’s head and shoulders.  Instead place them along the top horizontal line.

BeispielGestaltung

Similarly, if the portrait is a full-length shot, don’t place the subject in the centre of the frame.  instead, try placing him or her along one of the two vertical lines.” Steve Luck The Practical Illustrated Encyclopedia of Digital Photography, p. 50

How to Create Black & Orange Shiny Plastic Halloween Poster Sign Photoshop Tutorial

BlackOrangeCheckHalloweenSignYellowStrokeThis Tutorial Builds on the Previous Posting.  Before you can create this sign, you must first create the Black and Orange Check Tile in this tutorial: https://jackikellum.wordpress.com/2013/08/27/how-to-make-black-orange-halloween-check-repeating-pattern-scrapbook-paper-repeating-design-tutorial/

Create a new document 30″ wide by 8″ High.  From the Tool Bar, click on the Foreground and Background Tabs and enter the following:

Foreground Color #050e41 Background Color #01030f

Click on the word Layer – New Fill – Gradient from the Foreground Background Colors Set

HalloweenSignGradient

From the Tool Bar, click on the Type Tool.  From the Options Bar, select Blackoak Std, size 150 px,; Stron; Color Orange;

Type the word Halloween.  Initially, the word will not be tall enough.

Go to the top bar and click on the word Type – Rasterize Type

Return to the top bar and click on Edit – Transform – Scale — Make the type taller

HalloweenSignOrange

With the orange word Halloween selected in the Layers panel, go to the bottom of the panel and click on fx.  Select Stroke and add a Yellow stroke at 10px

Return to fx.  Select Pattern Overlay and select the Black and Orange Pattern that you previously created.

Halloween Sign Pattern

Return to fx and select Bevel and Emboss and use an Inner bevel with these settings:  Smooth; Depth 100%; Up; Size 5; Soften 0; Angle 158; Altitude 30; Use Global Light Selected; Gloss Contour; Anti Aliased NOT Selected; Highlight Mode Screen 75%; Shadow Mode Multiply 75%;

Return to fx and add a drop shadow.

How to Create Black & Orange Halloween Check Repeating Pattern Scrapbook Paper Repeating Design Tutorial

BlackOrangeCheck

Open a new document 3″ x 3″ [This creates a fairly large check.  For a smaller check, open a smaller document.  Repeat until you get the size check that you want.] The Background Color is White at this point.

Image

Be sure that both the Tools Panel and the Layers Panel are open [Go to Window along the top, Click Layers and Click Tools]

Image

Create a New Layer by Clicking on the word Layer on the same top bar.  From the drop-down menu, click New

Go to the word View on the top bar; and click Rulers, Snap, and New Guide, Select Vertical Guide.  Using the ruler to assist you, pull the vertical guide to the middle, at 1.5″  Create another New Guide – Horizontal – and position it at 1.5″

Image

Using the rectangle tool and fill color as black, create 2 squares as shown

Image

Using the rectangle tool and fill color as Orange # ff4500 create 2 squares as shown;

BlackOrangeTile

Push the Horizontal and Vertical Guides away from the tile and greatly enlarge it to be sure that all 4 squares meet completely.

Go to the word Edit on the upper bar.  From the drop-down menu, select Define Pattern.  A dialog box will appear; and you will name the pattern.

BlackOrangeTileDefinePattern

Open a new Document 12″ x 12″.  Go to the word Edit on the top bar – Fill – Pattern

BlackOrangeTilePatternSelect

BlackOrangeCheck

How to Create Watercolor Salted Sand Effect Paint with Photoshop Blending Mode Effect

SandyNightBeach

Create a new document 12″ x 12″

On top bar, select the word Layer and then New Fill Layer – From the Gradient Palette, Select the one made from the Foreground and Background Colors [Foreground Color Tab: 253ca2 Background Color: 050c24]

Image

Create a New Layer and Set Foreground Color to f5ad13

Select the Rectangle Tool [Beneath the Type Tool in the Tools Panel] and Draw a Rectangle across the lower one third of the canvas.

Image

Simultaneously press CTRL [CMD on Mac] and Click on the Rectangle image itself on its layer on the Layers Panel.

Select the Brush Tool and Change the Foreground Color to c75705

On the Options Bar [Second from Top], Choose a Large Soft Round Brush and set the size to 1200 Px.

In the Brush’s Blending Mode Box [Still on the Options Bar] select the word Dissolve from the Drop Down Menu.

Leave the Opacity at 100% and the Flow at 1%.

Lightly Dust a bit on Sandy Texture Across the Rectangle.

Image

On the Top Bar, Select the Word Edit; and from the Drop Down Menu, Select Transform and from that Menu, Select Warp.

A Mesh will form across the rectangle

Image

Grab the mesh on any of its bars and make the rectangle appear to be more natural.

Image

You can make the Effect more subtle by going to Filter, Blur, Gaussian Blur 2%

SandyNightBeachWarp7GaussianPG

How to Paint & Shade a Moon With Photoshop Blending Modes Painting – Without Gradient

MoonPaintedBM

Repeat the first several steps of the previous post:

Let’s Begin with a new document 12″ x 12″.  I begin with a transparent or white background and when the document opens, I go to Edit – Fill – and select a color.  The color of this sky is 1a0756

Select the Custom Shape Tool, which is hidden beneath the Rectangle Tool on the Tools Panel.  If you do not see your tools, go to Window on the top bar and from the drop down menu, select Tools.  I dock my Tools on the left.

Image The Custom Shape Tool is uncovered in this image.  It looks like a Blob and is beneath the Type Tool.

Before you actually use the Custom Shape Tool, go to the second bar from the top.  This is the Options Bar.  Click in the color area and enter the following yellow color: fff200  Also enter that number as the color of the yellow in the Foreground Box on the Tools Panel. Do not select a Strokes Color.

On the right end of the Options Bar, you can select any number of Photoshop’s Custom Shapes, once you have added them to you menu.

Image

There is a Drop Down Menu Arrow immediately to the right of whatever Custom Shape happens to be showing.  Click on that arrow and search for the Moon shape.  If it is not available to you, click on the little gear shape at the top right of that area.  From this gear shape, a list of shapes that you can add will appear.  Click on the word ALL and from the Dialog box, click APPEND.  Then search for the Moon Shape and select it.

Drag a nice, fat moon on your canvas.

Image

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________

The Exercise Changes Here:!!!!!

First Choose the Color that you want to use for Painting Your Shading and Change the Foreground Color to match.  I have used the following:  ff8a00  [The Background Color Will not Matter]

Select the Brush Tool.  And from the Options Bar [the second bar from the top], Choose a Large, Soft Brush and enter the following:  [Size=825; Beside the word Mode, select the word “Dissolve” (That is the Blending Mode that we will use for the brush here); Opacity 100%; Flow 25%]  All of the Settings can be altered except the Blending Mode.  It must be set at Dissolve Here in the Options Bar [Options for the Brush being Used].

ImageSimultaneously Click on CTRL [CMD on a Mac] and the Moon Image Itself in the Layers Panel.  This will prevent your painting from spilling on the background.  Just glaze the edges of the moon with your paint.  You can alter the opacity and/or reduce-add paint to meet your own preferences.  

How to Paint and Shade a Moon with Photoshop Custom Shape & Gradient Overlay Effect Very Easy

ImageThis project is as easy as Photoshop gets.  I have drawn a Moon with a Photoshop Custom Shape and Shaded it with a Photoshop Effect Gradient Overlay.  After we complete this exercise, however, I am going to build on this to show you some alternative ways to create and paint shaded moons in Photoshop.

Let’s Begin with a new document 12″ x 12″.  I begin with a transparent or white background and when the document opens, I go to Edit – Fill – and select a color.  The color of this sky is 1a0756

Select the Custom Shape Tool, which is hidden beneath the Rectangle Tool on the Tools Panel.  If you do not see your tools, go to Window on the top bar and from the drop down menu, select Tools.  I dock my Tools on the left.

Image The Custom Shape Tool is uncovered in this image.  It looks like a Blob and is beneath the Type Tool.

Before you actually use the Custom Shape Tool, go to the second bar from the top.  This is the Options Bar.  Click in the color area and enter the following yellow color: fff200  Also enter that number as the color of the yellow in the Foreground Box on the Tools Panel. Do not select a Strokes Color.

On the right end of the Options Bar, you can select any number of Photoshop’s Custom Shapes, once you have added them to you menu.

Image

There is a Drop Down Menu Arrow immediately to the right of whatever Custom Shape happens to be showing.  Click on that arrow and search for the Moon shape.  If it is not available to you, click on the little gear shape at the top right of that area.  From this gear shape, a list of shapes that you can add will appear.  Click on the word ALL and from the Dialog box, click APPEND.  Then search for the Moon Shape and select it.

Image

Drag a nice, fat moon on your canvas.

Image

Now Change the Colors on the Tools Panel. Click on the foreground color tab first [it is on top and to the left] and enter the following color formula:  fff200  Click on the background color tab next and enter this color formula:  ffa700

We’ll use these two colors to create a gradient to shade the moon.

Be sure that the Moon Layer is selected in the Layers Panel [If you do not see it, go to Window on the top bar and select Layers].  At the bottom of the Layers Panel, there is an fx.  Click on the fx and a Layer Styles Effects menu will appear.  Choose Gradient Overlay; and it will seem that you are being told to apply the blackish gradient.  Do not do that, however.  Click on the arrow next to that Blackish Gradient; and select your first colorful choice, which will be a mix from the yellow to orange that we just set as your foreground and background colors.  Note that I have used the Radial Gradient.  You can play with the other choices, too.

Image

Image

ImageJust as an experiment, change the background color to the following and redo the exercise:  ff4500

Image

The gradient becomes much darker.  Gradients can be controlled a bit by changing the angle and making other adjustments; but in my next posting, I will show you how to paint a shaded moon without a gradient.  By using that method, you have a great deal more control over where the shading occurs.